psychological flexibility, and cognitive flexibility on psychological symptomatology. This paradigm is based on task switching, whereby efficient activation of a new task and concurrent inhibition of a redundant task is required for cognitive flexibility. Cognitive flexibility is measured by means of a short sorting task, the Modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (M-WCST). This chapter focuses on cognitive flexibility in childhood and adolescence. Objectives The aim of this study was to explore cognitive flexibility in a large dataset of people with Eating Disorders and Healthy Controls (HC) and to see how patient characteristics (body mass index [BMI] and length of illness) are related to this thinking style. Positive mood often facilitates cognitive functions. 1. Flexibility is often measured through neuropsychological tests such as the Trail Making Test and the Wisconsin Card Sorting test. Children’s cognitive flexibility was measured through a card sorting test and a test of verbal fluency. By using a task-switching paradigm, the present study investigated how positive emotion affected cognitive flexibility and the underlying neural mechanisms. 2nd measurement taken 120 minutes after measurement 1. Researchers and clinicians assume that inflexible everyday behaviors in autism are directly related to cognitive flexibility deficits as assessed by clinical and experimental measures. Switch cost repre-sents the additional cognitive effort required in switching to a different task How much should we forget? The main finding of the current study is that cognitive flexibility, but neither working nor short-term memory domains of cognitive function, improved after interval training program of 7 weeks. The study of cognitive distance is no exception (Golledge, 1987). Training was sufficient to increase aerobic power and also elicited an improvement in running performance. Facilitation is hypothesized to be due to an increase in dopamine occurring in positive mood states. In addition, the children are asked to complete a serial reasoning task, an alternative version of the test used in the TagTile projects. Mental flexibility is considered part of executive funcions, which are the general mental functions that help us to cordinate thought and action. Cognitive flexibility, the ability to shift attention from a previously learned representation in order to select context-specific, behaviorally relevant stimuli, is an adaptive behavior, reportedly controlled by the cortico-striatal circuitry (Cools et al., 2004). Change in cognitive flexibility performance [ Time Frame: Measured over 5 hours four times.1st measurement taken at baseline (i.e. The next analysis found that after controlling for child age, gender, and Y1 ToM at the first step, as hypothesized, Y1 cognitive flexibility significantly predicted Y2 ToM scores (see Regression 1, Table 4).Consistent with the mediation hypothesis Y1 ToM did not significantly predict Y2 cognitive flexibility after controlling for Y1 cognitive flexibility (see Regression 1, Table 5). Cognitive flexibility also plays a key role in humor (Martin & Lefcourt, 1983).As O’Connell (1976) remarked, “the humorist is skilled in rapid perceptual-cognitive switches in frames of reference” (p. 327). Cognitive flexibility is the ability to switch rapidly between multiple goals. A number of studies have found that cognitive flexibility is impaired in children with ADHD [12–15]. Researchers from Children’s National Health System and Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia have developed a new measure of children’s flexible thinking, the Flexibility Scale. Nevertheless, a definitive link between cognitive flexibility and DMN connectivity remains to be established. time 0). Studying the development of cognitive control during childhood provides important insights, as the neural architecture thought to serve cognitive control (e.g. However, other studies have failed to find impaired cognitive flexibility in children with ADHD [16, 17]. Cognitive flexibility is our ability to update, inhibit and overcome learned neural pathways to ensure that we are capable of adapting to our diverse and ever changing physical, technological and social environment. Switch cost represents the additional cognitive effort required in switching to a different task and can impact performance when multitasking is involved. The scale we used has adequate reliability and its validity is supported by its use in studies (e.g., Kim & Omizo, 2005; Matthew Martin et al., 2011), which examined its effect on factors of psychological and behavioral importance. What this and other studies do is clue us in to some key ideas for how to improve cognitive flexibility, ultimately making us more resilient, creative, and confident. However, the neuropharmacology of these cognitive functions is poorly understood. Tests such as the Animal Sorting subtest of the NEPSY-II and the Twenty Questions Subtest of the D-KEFS also measures cognitive flexibility. However, previous works have seldom set up or empirically measured an independent index to demonstrate its mediating effect, nor have they investigated its mediating role on different types of creative performances, which involve distinct processes. Cognitive flexibility theory focuses on the nature of learning in complex and ill-structured domains. What should we inhibit? Flexibility is a personality trait that describes the extent to which a person can cope with changes in circumstances and think about problems and tasks in novel, creative ways. Results of • Cognitive flexibility is the ability to shift the focus of attention flexibly according to different demands, and it is associated with key youth adjustments (Garon et al., 2008). Cognitive flexibility has been described as the cognitive ability to switch between thinking about two different concepts, and to think about multiple concepts simultaneously. The Cognitive Flexibility Inventory (CFI) is a brief self-report measure of the type of cognitive flexibility (CF) necessary to successfully challenge and restructure maladaptive beliefs with more balanced and adaptive thinking; it is particularly popular for use with English speakers. Second, we measured cognitive flexibility using a self-report scale. Cognitive flexibility was measured using a computerized task-switching paradigm, which pro-duces 2 indexes of flexibility: switch cost and set inhibition. Researchers and clinicians assume that inflexible everyday behaviors in autism are directly related to cognitive flexibility deficits as assessed by clinical and experimental measures. This inconsistent relationship may reflect the numerous ways cognitive flexibility is measured. 'An individual's distance Despite some disagreement in the literature about how to operationally define the term, one commonality is that cognitive flexibility is a component of executive functioning. The researchers examined cognitive flexibility in 20 adolescents with OCD and 22 controls using a backward inhibition (BI) paradigm.1. A sample of 82 undergraduate students at the University of North Texas completed self-report questionnaires measuring low self-esteem, psychological flexibility, measured inversely as inflexibility, cognitive flexibility, and psychological symptoms. Debates about measurement and the meanings of measured constructs are common in scientific literature, especially so perhaps in the social and behavioral sciences. The researchers examined cognitive flexibility in 20 adolescents with OCD and 22 controls using a backward inhibition (BI) paradigm. To this end, we related resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-based functional connectivity of DMN with IED task performance in a healthy population, measured … 3rd measurement taken 220 minutes after measurement 1. However, facilitation has not been consistently found in studies of cognitive flexibility. Cognitive flexibility was measured using a computerized task-switching paradigm, which produces 2 indexes of flexibility: switch cost and set inhibition. This paradigm is based on task switching, whereby efficient activation of a new task and concurrent inhibition of a redundant task is required for cognitive flexibility. Cognitive flexibility and shifting the depends on the prefrontal lobe of the brain, which is the brain structure that takes longest to mature.You may have noticed that children are prone to impatience, get upset when faced with a change in the routine, and tend to throw tantrums. Staying flexible. However, there is a large gap between the day-to-day behavioral flexibility and that measured with these cognitive flexibility tasks. cognitive flexibility. CF was measured with the CFS ... Cognitive flexibility (CF) is a fundamental human ability to adjust cognitive processing strategies to deal with new and unpredicted situations. However, pharmacological studies investigating the role of … Therefore, when treating depression, mental defeat and cognitive flexibility should be measured in addition to depressive symptoms. Cognitive flexibility is proposed to be one of the factors underlying how positive emotions can improve creativity. However, there is a large gap between the day-to-day behavioral flexibility and that measured with these cognitive flexibility tasks. This trait is used when stressors or unexpected events occur, requiring a person to change their stance, outlook, or commitment. 1. Cognitive flexibility has been described as the mental ability to switch between thinking about two different concepts, and to think about multiple concepts simultaneously. Despite some disagreement in the literature about how to operationally define the term, one commonality is that cognitive flexibility is a component of executive functioning. In laboratory settings, cognitive flexibility is measured using set-shifting tasks such as the Wisconsin Card Sort Test which assess the individual’s ability to switch between rules. Humor requires the resolution of seemingly incongruent cognitive schemas. Although mental defeat and cognitive flexibility did not reach the level of the healthy control group, they demonstrated improvement. There are cognitive tasks and self-report questionnaires for this, like the disexecutive questionnaire (DEX), which is best suited for clinical populations. The serotonin (5HT) 2A receptor might be a promising candidate for the - modulation of cognitive processes. 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