Black Cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon) This is a very common insect, with many similar species occurring throughout the world. Cutworms are very vulnerable to rain or irrigation when young. The skin surface is roughened with a granular texture. https://extension.entm.purdue.edu/fieldcropsipm/insects/black-cutworms.php The moths are nocturnal and can be difficult to distinguish from other species of cutworm moths. These proteins are responsible for recognizing sex pheromone and general odorants, such as those released by host plants. Favored crops include most vegetable plants, alfalfa, clover, cotton, rice, sorghum, strawberry, sugarbeet, tobacco, and occasionally grains and grasses. These are blackish-gray to brown smooth-skinned caterpillars that hide in the soil during the day and feed at night. The egg stage lasts 3 to 6 days. The wingspan varies from 38 to 51 mm. Cutworm larvae are soft and fat, and roll up into a “C” shape when disturbed. When the CA was removed, males did not respond to female sex pheromones with sexual behavior. "Robinson, G. S.; Ackery, P. R.; Kitching, I. J.; Beccaloni, G. W. & Hernández, L. M. (2010). The skin texture consists of convex, rounded, coarse granules with smaller granules interspaced between. [4] Ants, specifically Lasius neoniger also prey on this species and feed on A. ipsilon eggs. Black cutworms have small black dots on their bodies, while variegated cutworms are mottled brown with a faint white stripe down their backs. Numerous convex skin granules give the larvae an overall shiny and "greasy" appearance. Black Cutworm – Agrotis ipsolon (Hufnagel)Family: Noctuidae, Order: Lepidoptera Indentification: Adult -The moth is characterized by long, narrow, usually dark forewings which are pale near the tips. Cutworms are moth larvae that hide under litter or soil during the day, coming out in the dark to feed on plants. Pupae are brown, spindle-shaped, and about ¾ … Fully mature adults are grey, brown or black night-flying moths that are about 1 inch long. Many species of cutworms are part of the Noctuidae family. Their colour range is grey, brown, black, red and greenish white, some striped or spotted. A The adults are small brown moths with brown front wings and white to yellow hind wings. The surface of the egg possesses 35–40 ribs that radiate from one apex.[4]. University of Illinois. Ground beetles also eat black cutworm larvae. They will often eat all the weeds available before moving to attacking crops. Black Cutworm: Insect Fact Sheet (2003). Cutworms are moth caterpillars that have occasionally been seen over recent years on amenity turfgrass areas across the UK. Life Cycle . The larva can range in color from light gray or gray brown to black. Black cutworm Such proteins include odorant binding proteins (OBPs), chemosensory proteins (CSPs), odorant receptors (ORs), ionotropic receptors (IRs) and sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs). They pupate into sword-grass moths, which are darker-colored moths. Cutworms themselves, which you can find by overturning the soil with your hands in the vicinity of the damage. Cutworms are the larvae of a small brown moth called “Millar”. Mature larvae grow to 1 ½ inches long. The larval stage lasts 20–40 days. The Royal Horticultural Society is the UK’s leading gardening charity. It has been shown that the juvenile hormone is involved in the release of PBAN in both males and females. Black cutworm larvae can be distinguished from the more common dingy cutworm and several other species attacking corn by the unequal sized and dark bumps (tubercles) on the upper edges of each body segment. They have three pairs of legs at the head end and five pairs of clasping prolegs on their abdomen, although these are often concealed as cutworms usually curl up when disturbed, In general moths lay their eggs during the summer and the caterpillars either pupate in the autumn or overwinter and complete their feeding in the following spring. Apple JW, 1967. They are 35-50mm long and have three pairs of true legs … Females can deposit eggs singly, or in groups of up to 1200 to 1900 eggs. There is a pale rather indistinct narrow stripe along the center of the back (Fig. The larva are considered pests because they damage the plant tissue under the soil. To determine if black cutworm is the culprit, dig at the base of wilted plants to find larvae. By . The larvae are serious agricultural pests and feed on nearly all varieties of vegetables and many important grains. The caterpillar is one of the "cutworms," so-called because they have a habit of attacking plants at ground level, eating through the stem and literally "cutting down" the plant. [15], There are three options to manage cutworm population and the incurred damages. Management for black cutworm. The Black Cutworm caterpillar (Agrotis ipsilon) is a fat long dark brown-gray caterpillar that looks almost black. The black cutworm, Agrotis ipsHon (Hufnagel), is a worldwide pest of many crops (Rings et al., 1975). These insecticides can also be applied as a planting-time treatment, although the same limitations still hold. The one that is most frequently seen is the black cutworm that develops in to the Dark Sword-grass moth, Agrotis ipsilon. These temperatures occur between April and September. The pupal stage lasts 12–20 days. Apple JW, 1967. The pupae appear to be dark brown and are 17–12 mm long and 5–6 mm wide.[4]. Busching, M. K. & Turpin, F. T. "Oviposition Preferences of Black Cutworm Moths Among Various Crop Plants, Weeds, and Plant Debris". Populations of this species have been found in southern Canada, 48 of the United States (and additionally Hawaii), Mexico, Central and South America, Australia, New Zealand, the Pacific Rim, North Africa, Europe, and Asia. Caterpillars can however, be found at any time of year, The stems of some annual plants may be girdle the stem or sever the roots at ground level, Cutworms also feed above ground at night whenever the weather is mild, particularly on the leaves of low-growing herbaceous plants, In summer cutworms can feed in the vegetable garden on lettuce roots, potato tubers and other root vegetables. Black cutworm larvae vary in color from light gray to black and are about 1 ½ inches long when fully grown. These plants have multiple stems and many low-lying basal leaves. Note the wide light coloured band down the back. They can be many different colors, including grey, brown, pink, black, and so on. The back wing is whitish grey. [13], A. ipsilon has a sensitive olfactory system with many proteins that are expressed in the antennae. [4][5], This species is a seasonal migrant that travels north in the spring and south in the fall to escape extreme temperatures in the summer and winter. We aim to enrich everyone’s life through plants, and make the UK a greener and more beautiful place. The black cutworm is up to 1 to 1 1/2 inches long, pale gray to black in color and a general greasy appearance. [4], Adults feed on flower nectar. They are widespread throughout the UK. As noted above, black cutworms are among the most common variety and they can be identified by the small dark spots that appear across their bodies. Therese cutworms are very common and have a white stripe down the center of their backs. Black cutworms. However, when decapitated females (meaning complete absence of the CA) were injected with a synthetic form of JH, ovaries were able to develop. One life cycle lasts between 35–60 days.[4]. Intensive screening of insecticides against the black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon (Hfn. Biological control suppliers (pdf document), Join Cutworms are moth larvae that hide under litter or soil during the day, coming out in the dark to feed on plants. The third option would be a rescue treatment that is applied after the infestations have occurred; this is also called the wait-and-see system. Do not be one of those people that figure that out too late. Black cutworms are a common corn pest throughout the Corn Belt and in the South. Photo 2. Proceedings of the North Central Branch of the Entomological Society of America, 22:86-89. "Calling Behavior and Rhythms of Sex Pheromone Production in the Black Cutworm Moth in China.". More than 45 days are required for eggs to develop into larvae and adult moths. To be effective the nematodes need to be watered into moist soil while soil temperatures are in the range of 12-20ºC (54-68ºF) as soon as possible after purchase/delivery. The caterpillar is one of the "cutworms," so-called because they have a habit of attacking plants at ground level, eating through the stem and literally "cutting down" the plant. A mixture of nematode species for controlling caterpillars and some other vegetable pests is sold as Fruit and Vegetable Protection and is available from some biological control suppliers. Fencerow debris includes dry grass debris, and this may be attractive for females to oviposit early in the spring before rapid vegetation growth occurs. Their color ranges from gray to nearly black. By the 4th instar, the larva becomes light sensitive and spends most of the daylight underground. Numerous convex skin granules give the larvae an overall shiny and "greasy" appearance. Integrated pest management, pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide. Before migration southward in the fall, the reproductive system in both females and males shuts down to prevent copulation before winter. Some are spotted, some have stripes, and some have no markings. The entire body is covered with granules and the head possesses many dark spots.[4]. However, when the CA was implanted back, responsiveness and sexual behavior returned. [2] The larvae are known as "cutworms" because they cut plants and other crops. Larvae parasitized by Meteorus leviventris, a type of parasitoid, eat 24% less vegetation and cut 36% fewer seedlings. The black cutworm species ranges from light gray to black in color, and larvae are 1-1/2 inches long when fully grown. They are also attracted to deciduous trees and shrubs such as linden, wild plum, crabapple, and lilac. Black cutwor… On large areas, black polythene or pieces of carpet will save you money. Our cool, wet spring has encouraged early season weed growth in many fields so… [6] In the span of 2 months, the moth progresses through the life cycle stages egg, larvae, pupa, and adult. [6] In another species, PBAN release has been shown to be stimulated by external factors including photoperiod, temperature and odorants from host plants[12], The juvenile hormone (JH), released by the corpora allata (CA), is necessary for the production and release of the sex pheromone. The ventral side is usually lighter, and this species does not have a dorsal band. In the spring and early summer, though, before migration north, females release sex pheromones soon after eclosion. Variegated cutworms. They are black to gray in color, and usually curl up when handled. It has no distinct stripes or markings except for small black tubercles that surround the base of each of 4 tiny hairs on each body segment. 020 3176 5800 Adults have a wingspan of 40–55 mm. Antennae in male bipectinated. [7], An entomopathogenic nematode called Hexamermis arvalis is known to infect 60% of larvae in the central United States. "Hormonal Control of Pheromone Responsiveness in the Male black cutworm, Gu, Shao-Hua, et al. Apple JW, 1968. [4][7], 38–48 mm. Typically, the older larvae (beginning with the 4th instar larva) … Cutworms are the caterpillars of some moths that live in the soil and can feed on lower leaves and base of plant stems. This species is abundant in warmer temperatures (such as Arkansas, US) during the late spring in May–June and early fall in September and October, while they are more abundant in cooler temperature (such as New York, US) during the summer in June and July. Cutworm infestations are horrid. 1). They have small dark spots on their bodies and mature into the dark sword-grass moth. The black cutworm adult is a dark grey to black moth with a dark black dagger shaped mark on the front wing. The young cutworm feeds on plant material without cutting off the stems or leaves but later becomes a true cutworm when it begins to cut off foliage and carry it back to its burrow. There are three black dashes on each forewing. The term ‘cutworm’ refers to the habit that these worms have of chewing right through the stem of a plant. Note the scattered black spots over the body. A larva typically attacks the first part of the plant it encounters, namely the stem, often of a seedling, and consequently cuts it down; hence the name cutworm.Cutworms are not worms, biologically speaking, … On the dingy cutworm these tubercles are nearly equal in size. Magnif… These can be seen and identified by the dark spots all over their bodies. We aim to enrich everyone’s life through plants, and make the UK a greener and more beautiful place. Once larvae are large enough they will be capable of cutting corn seedling up to (approximately) V3. Mon – Fri | 9am – 5pm, Join the RHS today and support our charity. Intensive screening of insecticides against the black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon (Hfn. Tubercles on the body are paired, but uneven in size. black cutworm . Scouting for black cutworm can be difficult because the larvae often hide during the day in soil or under residue. Based on the types of debris on the ground, the black cutworm prefers to oviposit in areas with fencerow (pasture) debris rather than corn field debris, woodland floor debris, and bare soil. Collection administered by Photographic Media Library manager, University of Nebraska-Lincoln Entomology Extension.curled larva in turfgrasslarvalAPSC 04 Topics: Agrotis ipsilon . Variegated cutworms, another common species, are mottled brown and have a faint white stripe down their backs. In June and July the moths lay eggs in batches of 30-50 on leaves and stems. Phenology of black cutworm in southern Wisconsin. Black cutworms, also known as Agrotis ipsilon, are some of the most common cutworms. Over the span of 5 to 9 instars, the caterpillar body grows from 3.5 mm to a maximum of 55 mm. RHS members can get exclusive individual advice from the RHS Gardening Advice team. [10], In a given year, the number of generations differs based on location and weather conditions. The first generation of adult moths are the most damaging. [1], Females release sex pheromones to attract males for mating. As well, ovaries remained underdeveloped when the CA was absent. The forewings are dark brown, and the distal area has a light irregular band a black dash mark. These long fat caterpillars get their name from their ability to cut down plants at their stem. Description. Once moths have been detected, the appearance of the cutting damage can be predicted using a day degree model (See Entfact-112 & 123 listed below). After the cutworm has some time to eat and feed, it’ll grow into an adult moth. Tubercles on the body are paired, but uneven in size. RHS Garden Hyde Hall Spring and Orchid Show, Free entry to RHS members at selected When disturbed, cutworms curl up into a tight C-shape. Adult cutworms are moths of dark wing colors. [4] They are a pollinator of fetterbush lyonia.[9]. The cutworm larva of the large yellow underwing (Noctua pronuba). The larvae are cannibalistic. [4], A. ipsilon are seasonal migratory insects that travel south in the fall to escape harsh cold temperatures and travel north in the spring to escape extremely warm weather. The CA releases JH which acts on the production/release of the PBAN-like factor. [12], In males, JH is necessary for pheromone responsiveness. "Juvenile Hormone Stimulates Pheromonotropic Brain Factor Release in the Female Black Vutworm, Gadenne, C., et al. Abstract. Picimbon, Jean-Francois. Phenology of black cutworm in southern Wisconsin. Black Cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon) This is a very common insect, with many similar species occurring throughout the world. Although called a worm, this is a true caterpillar species from the Noctuidae insect family. After the pupal stage, adult moths emerge and lay eggs on surrounding weeds, patches of grass and crop residue. [11], Females produce a sex pheromone in the pheromone gland on their abdominal tips that attracts males for mating. A green flush of low-growing weeds in fields prior to transplant provides attractive sites where cutworm moths can lay eggs. This may also be preferable due to a recently lower occurrence of outbreaks. Adults are gray moths that have a series of distinctive dark markings on their forewings (including a dagger-shape on each outer forewing) and lighter colored hind wings. Eggs may be laid even before crops are planted. Larger seedlings are also damaged when cutworm larvae burrow in … Costly mesh is seldom worthwhile for cutworm protection alone. Three species of cutworms are pests on golf course turf: the black cut worm, the bronzed cutworm and the variegated cutworm. Duportets, Line, et al. Similar damage can be caused by, Where possible tolerate some damage from these insects, Encourage predators and other natural enemies of caterpillars, in the garden, such as, The adult moths often prefer to lay eggs where there is a dense vegetation cover, and so they occur in the largest numbers in neglected areas or where turf has been dug up to make a vegetable or flower bed, Cultivation can briefly expose the grubs to some predators, such as birds, Remove caterpillars from soil as they are found. Repeat application may be necessary. They pupate into sword-grass moths, which are darker-colored moths. Damage to the underground parts of plants can also be harmful. An easy way to identify one is to poke it with a stick, if it curls into a “c” shape it’s a cutworm. [4], Larvae feed on weeds such as bluegrass, curled dock, lambsquarters, yellow rocket, and redroot pigweed. The adult black cutworm moth is reddish-brown with a front wing that is brown to black in the center two-thirds and clay-colored to the tip. times, RHS Registered Charity no. "Ant Predation on Eggs and Larvae of the Black Cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Japanese Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Turfgrass.". Corn should be scouted for cutworms from planting through mid-June. Other parasitoids include several fly species such as Archytas cirphis, Bonnetia comta, Eucelatoria armigera and Sisyropa eudryae. Hind wings are white with dark veins and broad, dark, indefinite margins. Cutworms are found throughout North America. The solutions below will help you get rid of these cutworm once and for all. If such host plants are not available, the females will oviposit on dead plant material. It may be necessary to water the soil before and after application to ensure the soil is sufficiently moist for nematode activity and survival. [14], Each larva can consume over 400 square centimetres of foliage during its development. This 33-amino-acid-long peptide is present in both sexes in the brain-suboesophageal ganglions (Br-SOG) during both scotophase and photophase. The moth gets its scientific name from black markings on its forewings shaped like the letter "Y" or the Greek letter upsilon. The migration patterns reflect how reproduction occurs in the spring and ceases in the fall. On most plant species, the cutworm prefers to oviposit on the leaves rather than the stem. [4] Other crops where serious damage occurs include cotton, maize, tobacco, sunflower, tomatoes, sugar beet and potato. After that they do considerable damage to crops by severing young plants at ground level. Proceedings of the North Central Branch of the Entomological Society of America, 22:86-89. [3] The larvae are serious agricultural pests and feed on nearly all varieties of vegetables and many important grains. Eggs hatch in early May through early June, and the larva spends three to five weeks chowing down on garden plants in preparation for the pupal stage. Black cutworm larvae vary in color from light gray to black and are about 1 ½ inches long when fully grown. The parasite thrives in moist soil conditions. The larvae are known as "cutworms" because they cut plants and other crops. They have a wingspan up to 1 ½ inches across, with their front wings typically darker with a pattern on … Many advertised solutions do not work, which is why you need the best cutworm insecticides on the market. They are light gray to almost black in color and have a greasy appearing texture and coarse granules of various sizes that can be seen on their skin. Cutworms feed on many plant species. When the CA was removed, calling behavior and sex pheromone production stopped. The black cutworm is the species most … However, they will feed on emerged leaves. There is a distinct black, “dagger-like” … Biosynthesis of the sex pheromone is controlled by a neurohormone called pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN). PBAN aids in pheromone production in females and pheromone responsiveness in males. Black lugworm (Arenicola defodiens) are large species of marine worms which are an extremely useful bait for anglers targeting a range of species.Despite being a widely used bait for many years they were only recognised as a separate species to blow lugworm by the scientific community in the 1990s. The one that is most frequently seen is the black cutworm that develops in to the Dark Sword-grass moth, Agrotis ipsilon. Black Cutworm larva. Black cutworm moths typically lay their eggs on winter annual weeds growing in un-tilled fields. The hindwings are whitish to gray and have darker colored veins. Early instar black cutworms are not capable of cutting corn seedlings. Adult moth of the black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon. [1], Several species of wasps prey on the black cutworm. [4] Throughout this time period, this moth faces the risk of predation and parasitism, such as by Hexamermis arvalis or by the parasite Archytas cirphis. https://ipm.illinois.edu/fieldcrops/insects/black_cutworm.pdf, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Agrotis_ipsilon&oldid=997494711, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 31 December 2020, at 19:55. Examine rows (especially along field margins or in parts of the field that were weedy) for wilted plants. ), … the RHS today and get 12 months for the price of 9. However, not all noctuids are cutworms, and in fact, there are a couple other moth species which have similar behaviors. Newly hatched larvae are about a quarter inch long and grow to be about two inches long when full sized. "The Pheromone Biosynthesis Activating Neuropeptide (PBAN) of the Black Cutworm Moth, López, Rolando, and Daniel A. Potter. Calling behavior increases within the first three days after eclosion but decreases as the females grow older. The nearly spherical eggs are initially white but turn brown with age. ), … Apple JW, 1968. Biological Control Black cutworm larvae vary in color from light gray to black and are about 1 ½ inches long when fully grown. There is a distinct black "dagger-like" dash near the front margin of each forewing. [1] The moth gets its scientific name from black markings on its forewings shaped like the letter "Y" or the Greek letter upsilon. The dark gray to black larvae have a greasy appearance and a grainy texture. The caterpillars are dull brown or green with darker lines and dots on their backs. Hindwings whitish-grey or whitish, terminally suffused with fuscous. One complete generation from egg to adult lasts 35–60 days. In the midwestern US, the black cutworm is considered to be a serious pest of corn. Soil insecticides can be applied as a pre-plant treatment, although this may be limited by the unpredictability of cutworm population density distribution. For armyworm (Figure 2),… In the case of BCW (Figure 1), 37 moths were captured when about 8 would be expected. This species is also known to migrate north in the spring and migrate south in the fall. Females oviposit eggs in clusters on low-lying leaves. [4], Calling behavior is the act of females releasing sex pheromones in preparation for mating. Forewings brown, reddish-tinged, mixed with pale greyish-ochreous, costa and sometimes median area suffused with dark fuscous ; first and second lines edged with dark fuscous; spots outlined with black, reniform followed by a short black dash ; subterminal line obscure, usually preceded in middle by two fine black marks. Pupae are brown, spindle-shaped, and about ¾ … The amount of sex pheromone in the body and calling behavior are coordinated on a time scale. As well, as the females grow older, they onset time of calling behavior occurs earlier. So, PBAN is what connects the network in the CA to the central nervous system's production of sex pheromone. This species pupates under the soil approximately 3–12 mm below the surface. Larval development is optimized at a temperature of 27 degrees Celsius, and instars 1–5 are most successful at higher humidities. The cutworm, which is the most damaging stage, is grayish brown as well, are fat, rather greasy-looking, and measure one to two inches in length. Calling earlier allows older females to have increased mating success as they normally produce less sex pheromone and need to appear more attractive than younger females. Larvae are light gray to nearly black and may have a faint, narrow mid-dorsal stripe. Therese cutworms are very common and have a white stripe down the center of their backs. The combination of early season weed growth and moth activity determine the potential for black cutworm damage to newly set plants. Variegated cutworms. [16], Pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide, Showers, William B. The species that are most found in gardens are the turnip moth (, The caterpillars of these moths are rather similar in appearance, growing up to 40mm long they are usually greyish-brown in colour, but can be pale green or creamy-white. "Molecular Characterization and Differential Expression of Olfactory Genes in the Antennae of the Black Cutworm Moth. For simplicity’s sake, I’m going to stick with the noctuids for this piece, as they’re by and large the worst of the cutworm species. In one study, female moths collected from late April to early May were 100% mated. Pheromone production and release in females and pheromone responsiveness in males is dependent on the juvenile hormone (JH) and pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (BPAN). Larvae vary from 1/4 inch long after hatch to 1-3/4 inches long when full grown. Black cutworm larvae vary in size from 1/8 inch (3 mm) when newly hatched to 2 inches (50 mm) when fully grown. After this growth, though, the moths are drawn more to low, dense plants such as the curled dock and yellow rocket. They feed above ground until about the fourth instar. Black cutworms. Cutworms range in color from gray to pink to black. Mature caterpillar of black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon, curling when disturbed. Agrotis ipsilon, the dark sword-grass, black cutworm, greasy cutworm, floodplain cutworm or ipsilon dart, is a small noctuid moth found worldwide. Join the RHS today and get 12 months for the price of 9 We have had substantial black cutworm moth (Figure 1.) They are hard to spot in soil. Cutworm moth flight may be monitored using pheromone traps. In Canada, there are 1 or 2 generations, while in the United States, there are 2 to 4 per year. The texture of the skin is characteristic and distinguishes them from all other cutworms. "Migratory Ecology of the Black Cutworm.". Black lugworm (Arenicola defodiens) are large species of marine worms which are an extremely useful bait for anglers targeting a range of species.Despite being a widely used bait for many years they were only recognised as a separate species to blow lugworm by the scientific community in the 1990s. When fully fledged, these cutworms turn into one of the more common types of moths we are all familiar with. OAI identifier: oai:N/A:UNL~71~71~30~1252502 Provided by: Image & … Nematodes should be applied as soon as possible after purchase, following the suppliers’ instructions. Xiang, Yu-Yong, et al. There are a few species of cutworms that are quite common. On the black cutworm, the front tubercle is obviously smaller than the rear. The eggs hatch two weeks later. Mature larva of black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon. Cutworms are moth caterpillars that have occasionally been seen over recent years on amenity turfgrass areas across the UK. When the eggs hatch, the larvae will begin feeding on the weeds. There are no spikes, hairs, or spines on its shiny dark body. The Royal Horticultural Society is the UK’s leading gardening charity. These can be seen and identified by the dark spots all over their bodies. This indicates that JH acts on the ovaries and production of sex pheromone in two independent neuroendocrine systems. This parasite ultimately kills the insect. 222879/SC038262, Cutworms are the caterpillars of a number of different moths who live in the soil and tend to feed at the base of plant stems. Photo 3. Larva ochreous brownish or bronzy-grey, sides sometimes greenish ; dorsal, subdorsal, and spiracular lines faintly darker or lighter, usually darker-edged ; head sufFusedly brown-marked.[8]. [1] However, they are absent from some tropical regions and colder areas and are more widespread in the Northern than Southern Hemisphere. Corn is very susceptible at the one-leaf stage, but by the four- or five-leaf stage, it is relatively unaffected. The female preoviposition period lasts 7–10 days. Pupae are brown, spindle-shaped, and about ¾ inch long. The best cutworm … Black cutworm moths can appear in traps throughout the growing season starting in March in Kentucky. 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